Where have those missing spaces gone???

Recently bought a new Seagate external 1TB hard drive and saw it’s missing out gigs of space than what was promised. I have seen this before. But, on a small capacity hard drive, say 1 GB HDD, you won’t really mind missing out some megs of space. Years back when I checked with my instructor, he said it is some system files that’s occupying this space. But, even after formating the disk, it still didn’t show 1 GB total space. Though I felt the instructor was wrong, I didn’t want to question and prove him wrong and moreover, he only had that answer he told me. Later, I checked with another tech guy when I was doing my graduation and he said those spaces were used by hard disk clusters. This answer was more convincing because it made sense; maybe while manufacturing a 1 GB HDD, they use a bit of space for it’s own purpose. I believed that answer for few years, but when I bought 500 GB HDD, a lot of gigs were missing and it’s not the hardware that’s using and obviously not any system files. So, again my search began and was in vain. Finally, when I bought Seagate 1 TB HDD, I contacted Seagate to check why so many GB’s were missing out from my harddisk. I got the answer and it proved both the previous answers wrong:

The reason is because when they advertise 320gb hard drive they count 1mb of data is = to 1000kb when really it is 1024kb. Now that may seem like it wont matter but when you go up to the huge gigabytes it DOES matter. You can do this simple calculation test to find out yourself.

Go to my computer and right click your drive and properties. If you did partition and split the drive make sure you add both of them together. Anyways go to properties and take a look at the total space in bytes.

For example My E drive is my 1TB(1000gb) hard drive 1000097177600 bytes is what it says in properties

So according to the advertisement hard drive companies they call this a 1TB drive because they divide those bytes and round off 24kb off every Mb(so you lose out 24kb every 1mb and when that doesn’t seem much, that is going to seem a lot when you have huge hard drives like mine).

So put the number 1000097177600 in the calculator in bytes


copy and paste that number in the bytes and convert it, you will see its really 931GB of space. The exact same number I see in my computer and total space I can use for that drive.

Now you try with your drive, take a look at the bytes(if you split the drive into 2 partitions add both of them together and paste into the converter and you will get roughly 320,000,000,000 which again since the hard drive companies divide 1mb by 1000kb when its supposed to be 1mb for every 1024kb you lose all that extra space.
Every hard drive manufacture will state this rounding off in their fine print, take a look at this random western digital hard drive specs


Scroll to the bottom and you will see their fine print

As used for storage capacity, one megabyte (MB) = one million bytes, one gigabyte (GB) = one billion bytes, and one terabyte (TB) = one trillion bytes. Total accessible capacity varies depending on operating environment. As used for buffer or cache, one megabyte (MB) = 1,048,576 bytes. As used for transfer rate or interface, megabyte per second (MB/s) = one million bytes per second, megabit per second (Mb/s) = one million bits per second, and gigabit per second (Gb/s) = one billion bits per second.

Priority Inbox

I love the Priority Inbox in Gmail. There were lots of emails that were unread all these years, obviously which were not that important, but Priority inbox gave a chance to check on all the emails when I was less busy. You just need to change the option in Priority Inbox so that “Unread” shows up as one section. So, you know there are mails that you have to check when you have time… Right now, I am all done with the unread emails and Gmail says: “Woohoo! You’ve read all the messages in your inbox”.

Layout engines of various browsers

Recently, one of my friend said he has blocked Trident/4.0 from accessing his websites as he thought its a bot and then his clients complaint that they can’t access their websites. So, I thought I’ll just put some info on it..

Trident (also known as MSHTML) is the name of the layout engine for Internet Explorer. The version that comes with IE 8 is 4.

The User Agent string includes the string ‘Trident/4.0′ in order to allow differentiation between the Internet Explorer 7 User Agent String and the Internet Explorer 8 User Agent string when running in Internet Explorer 7 Compatibility View.

All applications which display content based on a markup language use a layout engine. Gecko is the layout engine for Firefox, Camino, Netscape while WebKit is used in Safari & Chrome

ICMP – Destination Unreachable Message

This ICMP message is quite interesting, because it doesn’t actually contain one message, but six! This means that the ICMP Destination unreachable further breaks down into 6 different messages.

We will be looking at them all and analyzing a few of them to help you get the idea.

The ICMP Destination Unreachable Message

Code Value in ICMP Header



Net Unreachable


Host Unreachable


Protocol Unreachable


Port Unreachable


Fragmentation Needed and DF set


Source Route Failed

Note: Codes 0, 1, 4 and 5 may be received from a gateway.
Codes 2 and 3 may be received from a host

To make sure you don’t get confused, keep one thing in mind: The ICMP Destination unreachable is a generic ICMP message, the different code values or messages which are part of it are there to clarify the type of “Destination unreachable” message was received. It goes something like this: ICMP Destination <Code \value or message> unreachable.

The ICMP – Destination net unreachable message is one which a user would usually get from the gateway when it doesn’t know how to get to a particular network.

The ICMP – Destination host unreachable message is one which a user would usually get from the remote gateway when the destination host is unreachable.

If, in the destination host, the IP module cannot deliver the packet because the indicated protocol module or process port is not active, the destination host may send an ICMP destination protocol / port unreachable message to the source host.

In another case, when a packet received must be fragmented to be forwarded by a gateway but the “Don’t Fragment” flag (DF) is on, the gateway must discard the packet and send anICMP destination fragmentation needed and DF set unreachable message to the source host.

These ICMP messages are most useful when trying to troubleshoot a network. You can check to see if all routers and gateways are configured properly and have their routing tables updated and synchronised.

Know your PC Temperature

This is one good utility that I found useful to test my laptop temperature.

The application is known as SpeedFan. It gives you real time temperature reports of your harddisk, motherboard etc. I have no idea about the advanced settings though and didn’t have time to dig in through.

Anyways, I know my motherboard is getting heated up more and may be that’s the reason that my left palm is always hot and aches by the end of the day.